ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF CARBON AND SULFUR IN SOLID SAMPLEs

Mol CS Elemental Analyzer

Elemental Analyzer

Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer for Carbon and Sulfur

The Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer is ideally suited for the simultaneous determination of carbon and sulfur in solid, organic samples such as waste, ash, bauxite, soils, building materials, fertilizers, gypsum, glass, rubber, limestone, catalysts, ceramics, plastics, coal, coke, oil, plant parts, soot, sand, slag, tobacco, and clay.

Our customers come from different industry branches, such as energy and power plants, geology, mining and metals, the cement, ceramic and glass industries, agriculture, the fertilizer and chemical industries, the tire industry, as well as environmental monitoring and recycling.

Elementaranalysator Mol CS1000

Typical Sample Materials for the Elemental Analyzer

Coal

For fuel characterization, information about its chemical composition and quality is essential. This includes elemental analysis of carbon-based fossil fuels in mining, geology, and coal as well as more complex samples such as solid biofuels.

Soils

For an accurate assessment of soil fertility, parameters such as the concentrations of carbon and sulfur, as well as the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) are relevant.

Plastics

The basic raw materials used in the production of polymers and rubber are subject to stringent product quality requirements. The elemental analysis of carbon and sulfur through combustion analysis helps to determine the quality of basic raw materials, thus contributing to a higher quality of products.

Elemental Analyzer Measurement Procedure

3 simple steps for measurement results

Step 1: Weigh out sample
Step 2: Start measurement
Step 3: Read off results

Elemental Analyzer Measuring Principle

During analysis with the Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer, the sample is combusted in an oxygen stream at high temperatures in the High-Temperature Furnace. For this process, we recommend two of our high-temperature furnaces, the Mol Premier® 1350 for especially high temperatures of up to 1550 °C, and the Mol Premier® 1000 for particularly large sample quantities at temperatures of up to 1050 °C with a quartz flow reactor. The optional combination of multiple furnaces with one elemental analyzer also allows for fractional analysis at different temperatures and reduces downtime at high sample throughput.

For the determination of elemental contents in the sensitive ppm range, it may be necessary to reduce the blank values of the sample carriers such as combustion boats and crucibles. The Mol Premier® 1350 Pre-Heating Furnace is ideally suited for the successful determination of elemental contents in the sensitive ppm range. The Mol Premier®1350 Pre-Heating Furnace meets or exceeds common standards such as ASTM E1019 “Standard Test Methods for Determination of Carbon, Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Oxygen in Steel, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys by Various Combustion and Inert Gas Fusion Techniques” and ISO 9556 “Steel and iron – Determination of total carbon content – Infrared absorption method after combustion in an induction furnace” and ISO 4935 “Steel and iron – Determination of sulfur content – Infrared absorption method after combustion in an induction furnace“.

The CO₂, H₂O and SO₂ gases produced during combustion are purified, demoisturized and then detected in a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detector in the Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer. Depending on customer configuration requirements, up to 4 independent, selective wideband infrared detectors can be employed. The measurement result is then calculated and the mass fraction relative to the initial weight is output in the software.

For calibrating, we recommend our select range of reference materials for the determination of carbon and sulfur in solid samples. All materials are optimally adapted to the measuring range of the Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer. If you have any questions, our application experts are available to assist you at support@mol.de.

Elemental Analyzer Operating Principle

The CS1000 Elemental Analyzer measuring principle is based on the property of many gases to absorb infrared light. The spectral fraction of infrared light absorbed in this process is characteristic for each of these gases and is related to the number and type of atoms in the gas molecules.

The effectiveness of the light source used is decisive for the measurement method’s detection sensitivity. For this reason, Mol Analytik relies on modulatable infrared emitters that allow for rapid temperature cycling and are more powerful and cost-effective than the incandescent emitters previously used in gas spectroscopy, which required a mechanical chopper that periodically opened and closed the beam path. As a result, fast thermal cycling was not possible due to the large thermal mass. The disadvantage was the high price of the chopper and the lack of stability of the overall system under mechanical stress.

The modulatable infrared emitter emits narrowband pulsating infrared light. The emitter is crystal-controlled so that the frequency remains highly stable. The infrared light then passes through the cuvette containing the sample gas / carrier gas mixture. Depending on the composition of the gas mixture, only certain frequencies of the infrared spectrum are absorbed (selectivity). The intensity of the absorption depends on the concentration of the corresponding gases in the sample gas.

The infrared beam then leaves the measuring cuvette, through the end with a narrowband filter. The wavelength of the center of the band is chosen so that the intensity of the emitter behind the filter provides information about the concentration of a particular gas in the cuvette.

The beam then hits a semiconductor infrared detector, which emits an electrical signal proportional to the intensity of the radiation. Since the infrared light from the modulatable infrared emitter pulses, the semiconductor infrared detector provides an alternating signal. This suppresses the temperature and aging influences of the receiver as well as its noise. The resulting signal is amplified and rectified by the downstream circuitry so that it is present as a DC voltage at the output of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detector.

Infrarot-Detektor
Beam path of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detector consisting of modulatable infrared emitter, cuvette, semiconductor infrared detector

Technical Specifications

ElementsCarbon and Sulfur
Sample Materialorganic
Sample Carrierceramic combustion boat
Measuring Principlenon-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption
Detectors1 – 4
Duration of Analysisapprox. 60 – 240 s
Power Supply230 V ± 10 % 50/60 Hz
Required Reagentsmagnesium perchlorate, sodium hydroxide
Dimensions (W x H x D)60 x 57 x 55 cm
Required Gasoxygen (≥2.5 ) 200 – 400 kPa
Equipmentmonitor, computer, balance
Mol Multi Furnace Hochtemperaturofen

Mol Multi-Furnace Technology

Optionally, the Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer can be combined with up to 3 furnaces. This allows, for example, for fractional analysis at different temperatures with 2 combustion furnaces and the use of another pre-heating furnace.

Typical Applications for Elemental Analyzer

The Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer is ideally suited for the simultaneous determination of carbon and sulfur in solid, organic samples such as waste, ash, soils, building materials, gypsum, rubber, limestone, coal, coke, oil, plant parts, soot, sand, and tobacco. Below, we explain the method for analyzing a wide variety of materials. If you are missing applications for your material, our application experts are available to assist you at support@mol.de.

Elementaranalyse von Kohle

Coal

Temperature: 1350°C
Weight of sample: 150 mg – 300 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone. If the material contains pyrites that are difficult to burn, the temperature is increased to 1500 °C or approx. 300 mg of iron phosphate is poured onto the sample.

Elementaranalyse von Calciumcarbonat

Calcium carbonate

Temperature: > 800°C
Weight of sample: 100 mg – 500 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone. Calcium carbonate can be used in a concentration of 12% for calibration.

Elementaranalyse von Zement

Cement

Temperature: 1250°C
Weight of sample: 200 mg – 500 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse Kunststoff

Plastics

Temperature: 1450°C
Weight of sample: 50 mg – 100 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and very slowly pushed to the edge of the elemental analyzer’s hot zone. After the sample is ignited and the measurement signal drops, the sample is then pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone to ensure complete combustion of the remaining sample residues.

Elementaranalyse von Kohlenstoff in Gips

Gypsum

Temperature: 1250°C
Weight of sample: 300 mg – 1.000 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Holz

Wood

Temperature: 1300°C
Weight of sample: 350 mg – 400 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Graphit

Graphite

Temperature: >1000°C
Weight of sample: approx. 400 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and very slowly pushed to the edge of the elemental analyzer’s hot zone. After the sample is ignited and the measurement signal drops, the sample is then pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone to ensure complete combustion of the remaining sample residues.

Elementaranalyse von Asphalt, Öl und Gummi

Asphalt, oil and rubber

Temperature: 1450°C
Weight of sample: 50 mg – 100 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and very slowly pushed to the edge of the elemental analyzer’s hot zone. After the sample is ignited and the measurement signal drops, the sample is then pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone to ensure complete combustion of the remaining sample residues.

Elementaranalyse von Asche

Ash

Temperature: 1450°C
Weight of sample: approx. 200 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Boden

Soils

Temperature: 1350°C
Weight of sample: approx. 200 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Eisenerz

Iron ore

Temperature: 1450°C
Weight of sample: approx. 250 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Petrolkoks

Petcoke

Temperature: 1350°C
Weight of sample: approx. 350 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Boden

Soils

Temperature: 1350°C
Weight of sample: approx. 200 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Eisenerz

Iron ore

Temperature: 1450°C
Weight of sample: approx. 250 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

Elementaranalyse von Petrolkoks

Petcoke

Temperature: 1350°C
Weight of sample: approx. 350 mg

The sample is weighed in the ceramic combustion boat and pushed into the elemental analyzer’s hot zone.

One software program. Many languages.

For all devices.

The Mol CS1000 Elemental Analyzer as well as all high-temperature furnaces in the Mol Premier® series can be operated with central evaluation and control software.
Users can currently choose from more than 80 different languages.

Images similar. Content may be subject to modifications or corrections.
Mol Premier® is a registered trademark of Mol Analytik GmbH.